Relationship between Gravity and Bio-Evolution

1. Evolutive Importance of the Circulatory System/Gravity Interaction

Rotation of Earth causes a centrifugal force on things, which has a component on opposite direction with respect to gravity and causes a  weight decrease of them. This force is stronger on the equator, so weight of a thing at 0◦N is a little bit lighter than the weight of the same thing on other lati- tudes of the Earth. Centrifugal force causes that while a thing has 1000gr weight on the pole, it will be 996 gr on the equator. In other words, we see about 4 gr decrease per kilogram. A person  with 70 kg at the pole, will be 69.7 kg at the equator. If we transfer a thing with 1 kg from latitude 45◦  to the equator, difference of weigh per kg will be less than 4 gr. Therefore we see that little change of gravity on the Earth causes an insignificant difference in thing’s weight.

 In 1671 an astronomer group set off from Paris (45◦N) to Cayenne Island (5◦N) for a commission. Jean Richer, the head of this group, had a precise pendulum clock with him in this trip. He noticed that clock was postponed 2.8 minutes per 24 hours. Jean Richer did not know why. But about 15 years later, Isaac Newton said that the reason is the difference of gravity in the mentioned zone. After that, pendulum became a precise facility for measuring difference of gravity in various points of the Earth. Because in places near together, spring balance could not show insignificant difference of gravity but  pendulum could easily. It seems that  pendulum can acts like a magnifying  glass. How a pendulum can do such a work?  When we weigh a thing with a spring-balance, and compare the difference of weight with other zones, we only have done and resisted this job once, therefore the  difference will be little and insignificant. Analogously, if pendulum move only once, the  difference of time will be very little; i.e. the difference of time for a single oscillation of pendulum on equator and pole is insignificant  and shows the same little difference of the spring balance. But when pendulum moves twice (goes and returns) it will delay a little each time and, because of gathering together of these delays, we will see the difference twice larger  i.e. pendulum has magnified it twice, so we  can see it easier. If pendulum moves three  times, the difference will be three-fold.  So  it  is possible to compare each other the difference in gravity on various zones.  Imagine if pendulum go and re- turn once per second, it has many times to go and return in 24 hours and it is possible to obtain a  good magnification. This great magnification  was that Jean Richer abscribed in 1671 to the difference in gravity between Paris and Cayenne Island. If he wanted to do this test even with the most precise balance of that time, he would had not get a conclusion and could had not put in evidence any difference  of gravity between Cayenne island and Paris.

There is a apparatus similar to a pendu- lum in animal’s body, which shows the little difference of gravity with a great magnification. This apparatus is the same blood circulation system with the heart engine.

Blood moves like pendulum cyclically. Each tour of circulation of blood is similar  to onetime round trip of a pendulum. Blood  go aloft from the surface of Earth alternately  like  a  pendulum  and  comes nearer to it again and repeats this duty hundreds of time each day and night. So, a little difference in gravity will have a lot of effect in work of this apparatus as well as it had in task of a pendulum.

If blood circulation was only once during  the life of an animal, the little dif- ference  of gravity could not impress on it and acted  as a springbalance. But because blood  goes  up and down from the surface of Earth thousands of times, so like a pendulum, the effect of little difference of gravity in this system will add up thousand times resulting in a great amount. If an animal is larger and have more blood, this additional load will be more effective.

In  the  following  of  this  paper  the relation  between  blood/fluid  circulatory system  and  size  of  animals  and  plants through geological time will be discussed. However, the possibility that latitudinal gradient of gravity can influence latitudi- nal selection of species in the Recent time deserves to be the subject of more deep and circumstantiated future researches.

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The elephant heart weights 22 kilograms and circulates about 450 litres (720 kg) of blood. And its heart 28 beats per minute. The capacity of adult elephant stomach is 50 litters (80 kg)

If we transfer the elephant from the equator to a place near to the pole, elephant’s blood will be heavier about 4gr per kg, 320 grams overweight per heartbeat. In other words, the elephant's heart will carry per heartbeat 320gr additional weight.

Additional weight per day = 320gr x 28 x 60 x 24 = 12902400gr

Additional weight per year = 12902400gr x 366 = 4722278400gr

The elephant live around 70 years

Additional weight per generation of elephant = 4722278400gr x 60 = 283336704000gr = 28,3336,704kgr

 In other words, the elephant's heart must carry 283336704kgr more load than in the equator, per generation of elephant . Therefore we see that, with a much little change in gravity it be imposed a lot of additional force to the animal's heart.

 This is why tall and big animals such as giraffe and elephant can only live in equatorial points of earth, because of less gravity in there (little amount) than other places and their heart can send blood to farther distances from the surface of earth. So in practice we see that much little increase of gravity has noteworthy effect in animal bulk/stature.

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Please, see the map below:

 

African Elephant  (largest alive mammal ) distribution map  

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Elephas Maximus (Asian Elephas) distribution evolution map

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White Rhinoceros distribution map

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Javan Rhino evolution map

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Giraffe distribution map

 

 

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Centuries ago, lions used to be common throughout Eurasia. They were found all over Africa, and spanned as far as Portugal to India. Lions disappeared from Europe all together around 100 AD. Around 1900, lions also disappeared from Northern Africa and the Middle East.
 
The map below represents where lions can currently be found in Africa.

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 Ostriches distribution map

 

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Why all largest animals living near the equator currently?

While, the largest animals have lived in most places of the world in the past.

How do you explain it?

Sincerely,

         Ramin

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""Regarding big birds, note that Elephant birds comprising the genera Aepyornis and Mullerornis.are found only on the island of Madagascar. They are among the heaviest known birds but Dromornis stirtoni of Australia reached a similar weight.

The moa lived in New Zealand until men arrived.

 Giant penguins, over 2 m and very heavy, lived in West Antarctica and Argentina in the Eocene (about 40 million years ago).

Best wishes""

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Why In 40 million years ago?

Why can not grow to this size now?

Why Emperor Penguin has 1.1 meters high now?

What causes them is getting smaller (of 40 million years ago until today)?

Slight increase in surface gravity of 40 million years ago until today.

 

Equator birds in 40 million years ago was how much?

Equator birds were much larger than polar birds in 40 million years ago. Because, equator gravity was less than the polar gravity in 40 million years ago.

 

The moa lived in New Zealand until men arrived.

Elephant birds lived in Madagascar until men arrived.

The moa lived in New Zealand until surface gravity slightly increased.

Elephant birds lived in Madagascar until surface gravity slightly increased.

The mammoth lived in Siberia and rhinoceros lived in Europe until surface gravity slightly increased.

See the map below:

What has caused, elephants migrate to the near equator?

Slightly increased of surface gravity has caused elephants migrate to the near equator.

Ramin

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 "The Maori arrived in New Zealand at 1280 AD.

Within 50 years the moa were extinct.

They died from hunting, not gravity change, and were a flourishing big bird far from the equator."

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 If they (Moa) had a way to migrate toward the equator might be alive now. But New Zealand have not   none way. They were besieged in the island and they died from gravity change. (Perhaps, peoples,   accelerate little its action. If humans were not, they were finally dead (maybe with a little delayed).

Ostriches were formerly very common in the Arabian Peninsula, Syria and Iraq (far from the equator). Ostriches were from Ethiopia and Sudan in the east throughout the Sahel to Senegal and Mauritania in the west, and north to Egypt and southern Morocco, respectively.

But with the gradual increase of surface gravity, they were forced to accumulate near the equator. If Ostriches did not have access to areas near the equator, like moa, were absence now.

Similar this:

Elephants, giraffes and rhinos lived in many places near and far from the equator. There are many fossils of these animals near my city (Tabriz). But with the gradual increase of surface gravity, they were forced to accumulate near the equator. If they did not have access to areas near the equator and were trapped on an island, like moa, they were absence now.

Sincerely

Ramin

 

 

 

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2. Relation Between Power of Blood/Fluid Circulatory System and  Size of Animals and  Plants