8. The Pace of Evolution and its Relation with Continental Drift and Expanding Earth
Here, I want to point out a matter that I
Let us begin the matter with a question: What is your opinion about why native people of continents of America and Australia were living in primitive societies before the arrival of civilized people from other continents? Why civilized people had not been appeared in these two continents?
The development of humans is dependent to the development of science and development of science is dependent to scientists of the society. The occurrence of scientists in each society is accidental and follows statistical rules.
Scientists leave their inventions and discoveries to scientists who come later, and the recent generation of them uses this information to find or invent new other things. Thus, science is developing in the society and is getting progresses. The pace of evolution of science in each society is in connection with two things:
1) The percentage of scientists existing in the society;
2) The rate of connection between scien- tists.
The possibility of appearance of scien- tists in each society has a direct relation to the population amount of the society. This means that, more populated is the society, more the scientists that exist in that society. That is the reason why the most development has come to existence in great and populated continents like Asia- Europe-Africa.
If a scientist has not access to informa- tion of scientists previous to him, he must independently to find or invent all the in- formation from the beginning. In this case, he will not have enough time to find or in- vent new matters and his work leads to a meaningful slump of the pace of scientific evolution in that society. By a glance to the different continents of the Earth we can ob- serve easily that:
Continents like Asia-Europe-Africa which have had a connection each other have had a scientific development and a quicker pace of evolution because of the mutual connection of their scientists and of the exchanging of information. On the contrary, continents like Australia and America (before getting explored) that were isolated and without connections, have not had a noticeable scientific devel- opment, and additionally both their pace of evolution was slower and their population were living primitively. The northern parts of Africa that were in connection with continents Asia and Europe, were more developed than the southern parts, which were more far and without connection.
Also now, if we cut the entire connection of the Australian continent with other lands of the world, after a short period, we will be witnesses of a scientific lag of that continent with respect to other conti- nents, because the population of Australia is lesser than the population of the rest of the world. This is why the percentage of appearance of scientists will be less there, and consequently the development of sci- ence in Australia will be less than the average one in the world. If there was not any sea-route or land- route between Asia and Europe, the science of making the compass, the paper, the printing, the banknotes and the gunpowder would not reached Europe from Asia, and Europe would not have developed up to the present extent. And, on the contrary, if new sciences was not arrived to Asia from Europe, now Asia would be in great lag.
I think that this example – an analogy – makes clear to us that into the pace of evo- lution of societies, it has been involved the rate of connection between them and the amount of population. We use this example as an analogy for the pace of evolution of land animals. The appearance of a proper genotype for development and evolution of land animals – like the appearance of the scientists – is an entirely accidental issue and follows the probabilities rules applied to the population of land animals. More the population, more the percentage of appearance of land animals possessing the desired genotypes. And more the connection of various regions with each other, more the diffusion of desired genotypes.
The life place of land animals is on the surface of Earth’s continents, so, if continents are larger and their forms are more circular, the pace of evolution of land animals of that continent will be more quick; indeed, the pace of evolution of the land-animals in Asia, Europe and Africa is much more fast than the American and Australian ones. If continents had not separated from each other, remaining a con- stant connection among them, the pace of evolution would has been greater and now we would be witnesses a number of new classes.
Here, I mention its suitable example. The modern mammals (placental mammals) on their evolutionary path have passed monotremes and Marsupials. In Asia and Europe marsupials had existed al- ready in preceding epochs . But later, mod- ern mammals have evolved from them. Since these continents are great and they have had intense mutual relations, as con- sequence the pace of evolution of animals in these continents has been faster and can have produced the modern mammals. But the continent of Australia has had slower pace of evolution due to its small surface area and lack of connection with other places, with the result that over there mam- mals are in primitive stages and have re- mained marsupials. If modern mammals were not entered in Australia from other continents, for the appearance of mod- ern mammals might be needed millions of years due to its very slow pace of evolution.
By these interpretations, I think it is clear what I mean to you. I mean that the pace of evolution can be a good evi- dence for the theory of expanding Earth. According to the theory of expanding Earth, all the continents were contiguous in the past and were in connection with each other from every side. On this kind of supercontinent, the land fauna should have had a very high pace of evolution.
On such a continent, new species, families, and classes of land animals should appear with high speed of evolution.
By coming to existence slits in this great continent and fragmentation of it, the pace of the evolution of the land animals should be reduced noticeably. We can pro- vide another good evidence for the theory of expanding Earth by studying the pace of evolution of land animals and determi- nation the period of appearance of different classes of land animals in the past, and finding meaningful differences in pace of evolution of land animals.
As you see in Fig.6, according the tectonic theory, margins of around of the continents is free. Association of land animals with the other side has been cut at margins of the continents. But according the ex- panding Earth theory, continents are stuck together from all sides and animals are in touch with each other from every side. The pace of evolution of animals in the two models will differ greatly. So we can proof the validity of one of the two models by researching on the pace of the evolution of animals.
Fig. 6. Different pattern of the continents in the plate tectonics and expanding Earth theories. The relation of land animals/plants on red line with each other (in Plate tectonics, on the left) is lesser than other ani- mals/plants situated in inner point. In the Expanding Earth (on the right), there is not such a red line like in figure Plate tectonics and there are more chance to be in touch with each other among animals in all points. As the pace of evolution has a direct connection with the relation of animals with each other, so the pace of evolution of land animals/plants in figure Expanding Earth will be more than those in figure Plate tectonics.
Does continental drift has reduced the pace of evolution of land animals?
Does continental drift reduce the pace of evolution of land animals?
Does continental drift made slower the pace of land animals’ evolution?
Does the pace of land animals evolution has decreased by continental drift?
Appearance of the first vertebrates (early amphibians) in land = 370 million years ago
The first appearance of reptiles = 350 million years ago
The first appearance of mammals = 220 million years ago
The first appearance of new class = In the future
370 – 220 = 150 million years = Elapsed time for the evolution of reptiles from amphibians and the evolution of mammals from reptiles. The appearance of two successive classes, during 150 million years.
220 – Future > 220 million years = Elapsed time for the evolution of new class from mammals. In the past 200 million years there wasn’t any new class of mammals. In the last 220 million years, evolving of land animals too rapidly declined. This shows that the rate of evolution of land animals has been slower over time. The cause of this declining is continental drift. If continental drift did not and all continents remain stuck together, did not reduce the rate of animal evolution, and now there was several new class, after mammals.